Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 2 Heating System Components, Gas and Oil Burners, and Automatic Controls

Conversion Tables

To Convert Into Multiply By Acres Square feet 43,560.0 Atmospheres Centimeters of mercury 76.0 Atmospheres Feet of water (at 4°C) 33.90 Atmospheres Inches of mercury (at 0°C) 29.92 Atmospheres (atm) Kilograms/ square centimeter 1.0333 Atmospheres Pounds/square inch 14.70 Barrels (U. S., liquid) Gallons 31.5 Barrels (oil) (bbl) Gallons (oil) 42.0 Btu Foot-pounds 778.3 Btu Gram-calories […]

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Data Tables

592 Pipe Size " 4 11 13 9 11 4.4 5.9 3.б 4.8 4 4.б 3.3 3.7 3.4 4.2 2.8 3.4 4 5.5 3.3 4.5 2.б 3.5 2.1 2.9 12 17 9.9 14 2.2 2.8 1.9 2.2 17 21 14 17 9.4 12 7.7 1C Fittings Steel C. I. Steel C. I. Steel C. I. […]

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Manufacturers

Adams Manufacturing Company 9790 Midwest Avenue Cleveland, OH 44125 (216) 587-6801 (216) 587-6807 (Fax) Www. gamanet. org Amana Refrigeration, Inc. 1810 Wilson Parkway Fayetteville, TN 37334 (800)843-0304 (931) 433-6101 (931) 433-1312 Www. amana. com American Standard Companies Inc. One Centennial Ave. Piscataway, NJ 08855 (732) 980-6000 (732) 980-3340 (Fax) Www. americanstandard. com A. O. Smith […]

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Professional and Trade Associations

Many professional and trade associations have been formed to develop and provide research materials, services, and support for those working in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning trades. The materials, services, and support include: 1. Formulating and establishing specifications and professional standards. 2. Certifying that equipment and materials meet or exceed mini­mum standards. 3. Certifying […]

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Steam and Hydronic Line Controls

The pipelines of steam and hot-water heating systems contain a number of different devices or controls designed to maintain and control the circulation of the steam or water through the steam and hot-water lines. These steam — and hot-waterline controls include such devices as pumps, manifolds, valves, flow switches, steam traps, and expansion tanks. Some […]

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Valves and Valve Installation

A valve is a device used for controlling the flow or pressure of a fluid in the pipes of steam and hot-water heating systems. Valves are generally restricted in use to the control function for which they were designed. Specifically, a valve may be used to control a fluid in one of the following ways: […]

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Pipes, Pipe Fittings, and Piping Details

Pipes are available in a variety of materials, sizes, and weights. The type selected for a particular installation will depend on a number of factors, including government codes and standards, specifica­tions, system requirements, availability of materials, and cost. Some of these factors, such as codes and standards, will have priorities over others, but all should […]

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Ducts and Duct Systems

Air distribution systems based on the forced-air principle of delivery utilize a system of ducts to deliver the heated or cooled air to the various rooms and spaces within the structure. These air ducts are generally rectangular or round pipes made from a variety of differ­ent materials. When these ducts are accurately sized and the […]

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Other Automatic Controls

Modern heating and cooling systems contain electrical control cir­cuits that are interconnected and interlocked with the various sys­tem components by a series of switches and relays. Most of these components, particularly the heating and cooling equipment (fur­naces, boilers, compressors, condensers, and so on) and most sys­tem controls have been described in other chapters of the […]

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Gas and Oil Controls

A variety of different types of controls are used in gas and oil heat­ing systems to ensure the safe, efficient, and automatic operation of the furnace, boiler, or water heater. These controls function together as a control circuit within the heating system. The most important functions of the control circuit are (1) to start or […]

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