Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 1 Heating Systems, Furnaces, and Boilers

Conversion Tables

To Convert Into Multiply By Acres Square feet 43,560.0 Atmospheres Centimeters of mercury 76.0 Atmospheres Feet of water (at 4°C) 33.90 Atmospheres Inches of mercury (at 0°C) 29.92 Atmospheres (atm) Kilograms/ square centimeter 1.0333 Atmospheres Pounds/square inch 14.70 Barrels (U. S., liquid) Gallons 31.5 Barrels (oil) (bbl) Gallons (oil) 42.0 Btu Foot-pounds 778.3 Btu Gram-calories […]

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Data Tables

Table D-l Equivalent Length of New Straight Pipe for Valves and Fittings for Turbulent Flow 632 Pipe Size TOC o "1-5" h z Finings ’A % ’A 3A I I’A I’A 2 2’A 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Steel 2.3 3.1 3.6 4.4 5.2 6.6 7.4 8.5 9.3 […]

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HVAC/R Education, Training, Certification, and Licensing

A career in the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigera­tion (HVAC/R) trades requires special education and training. Formal education and training in the HVAC/R trades is available in many local public colleges and proprietary schools. Certification requires passing a standardized test indicating a thorough knowl­edge of the subject matter. The states also require HVAC/R techni­cians and […]

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Manufacturers

Adams Manufacturing Company 9790 Midwest Avenue Cleveland, OH 44125 (216) 587-6801 (216) 587-6807 (Fax) Www. gamanet. org Amana Refrigeration, Inc. 1810 Wilson Parkway Fayetteville, TN 37334 (800)843-0304 (931) 433-6101 (931) 433-1312 Www. amana. com American Standard Companies Inc. One Centennial Ave. Piscataway, NJ 08855 (732) 980-6000 (732) 980-3340 (Fax) Www. americanstandard. com A. O. Smith […]

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Professional and Trade Associations

Many professional and trade associations have been formed to develop and provide research materials, services, and support for those working in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning trades. The materials, services, and support include: 1. Formulating and establishing specifications and professional standards. 2. Certifying that equipment and materials meet or exceed mini­mum standards. 3. Certifying […]

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Boiler and Furnace Conversion

Sometimes it becomes necessary to convert an existing boiler or fur­nace to another fuel. This is usually the case when the fuel for which it was originally designed has become too expensive relative to oth­ers or does not meet the desired level of efficiency. During the early 1950s, when coal was becoming more and more […]

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Steam and Hot-Water Space Heating Boilers

Boilers are used to supply steam or hot water for heating, process­ing, or power purposes. This chapter is primarily concerned with a description of the low-pressure steam and hot-water (hydronic) space heating boilers used in the heating systems of residences and small buildings (Figures 15-1 and 15-2). The basic construction of both low-pressure steam and […]

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Electric Furnaces

Electric heating is the only heat produced almost as fast as the ther­mostat calls for it. It is nearly instantaneous because there are no heat exchangers to warm up. The heating elements start producing heat the moment the thermostat calls for it. Unlike electric base­board heating systems, electric furnaces are designed to provide the same […]

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Coal Furnaces, Wood Furnaces, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces

Coal and wood furnaces burn solid fuels. The former burns coal or coke; the latter, various types of wood. Solid-fuel forced-warm-air furnaces are rated in accordance with formulas provided by the for­mer National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association (now the Air Conditioning Contractors of America). Check the lat­est edition of the publication Commercial […]

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Oil Furnaces

Oil furnaces are available in upflow, downflow (counterflow), or horizontal-flow models and in a wide range of heating capacities for installations in attics, basements, closet spaces, or at floor level (Figures 12-1, 12-2, and 12-3). The furnace, oil burner, and controls are generally available from the manufacturer as a complete package for residential installations. All […]

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