# Emission From Heat Sources

Heating and cooling load calculation for HVAC system design is based on the heat balance principle. For the given building, room, or independent building zone, heat balance components should be established and analyzed. The major heat sources and sinks in industrial buildings are:

• Heat losses and gains by heat conduction through the building envelope

• Heat gains by solar radiation

• Heat losses and gains with infiltration and exfiltration through cracks in the building envelope

• Heat gains from people activity

• Heat gains from lighting

• Heat gains from processes with conversion of mechanical energy’ into heat

• Heat gains and losses for heating or cooling raw materials and parts brought into or taken out of the building, melted metal solidification, vapor condensation, or liquid evaporation

• Heat losses with vehicles entering the building, etc.

The total heat gains and losses, AW, which should be compensated by the HVAC system, can be determined by

N m

AW = Zwg^.-Sw>o^-

1 I

Heat gains and losses can be only sensible or sensible and latent. Sensible heat gains result from conduction, convection, and/or radiation. Latent heat gains occur when moisture is added to the space (e. g., from evaporation!.

The total heat load is introduced by each source by convection and radiation:7 w0= Wconv+ Wrad = 0«Wo + (l-»Wo. (7.11)

The total radiant component of the heat load introduced by each source into the space can be divided between the upper and the lower (occupied) zones of this space:7

The total convective component of the heat load introduced by each source is

Wconv = Wconv low + Wconv up = PiJj W0 + (1 — (3)vp W0 , (7.13)

Where (1/, ip, and (3 are nondimensional coefficients reflecting the portion of the convective component of the total heat load released into the space for each heat source, the portion of the radiant component of the total radiant heat load in the low zone, and the portion of the convective component of the total convective heat load in the low zone, respectively.

Coefficients iJj, ip, and (3 vary within a range from 0 to 1. The coefficient ^ value depends oil the heated surface temperature and emittance, and can be estimated from Table 7.2.

TABLE 7.2 Coefficient я

 Surface temperature, 0,urf) °C <■: 40 50 60 100 ISO 200 300 500 800 1000 1200 0.8 0,42 0.44 0.45 0.48 0.45 0.4 0.32 0.2 0.1 0,1 0 0.5 0.52 0.55 0.58 0.59 0.56 0.51 0.42 0.29 0,14 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.73 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.65 0.59 0.3 0.2 0.14

The coefficient tp value depends on the source location in the ventilated room (e. g., in the center, close to the wall, etc.) and the source dimensions rel­ative to the room size. Coefficient <p values for small sources (< 1/10 of the room size) can be estimated using Tables 7.3. and 7.4.

Coefficients and <p for some typical heat sources are as follows;

For a sitting or standing person = 0.57, <p = 0.63

For machining equipment = 0.5, <p = 0.6

The p coefficient value depends upon the supply air method (e. g., (3 = 0 with displacement and natural ventilation, p = 1 with convective plume dissipating within the occupied zone due to interaction with supply jets, air­flows created by moving objects, etc.).

Heat Gain from Process Equipment

Heat load from hot process equipment with a relatively simple configura­tion (e. g., tanks with hot water, solution, or oil) can be calculated using the following equation:

Where 0surf = surface temperature, °C; 0O = room air temperature, °C; Aconv = convective heat exchange surface area, m2; and Arafl = radiant heat exchange surface area, m2. In general, Arad< Acony (i. e., the ratio KA = AradMconv < 1). The convective and radiant heat flux, otconv and arac),W/(m2 °C), are

Aconv ~— 0Q ; | ^ j

 Weq = e0C06 + TABLE 7.3 Coefficient ^horizontal Utf — 0o(0 Surf E0M, B/H Source location in the room 1 2 3 4 Along the room axis 0.3 0.12 0.04 0 Between the axis and the wall 0.38 0.17 0.11 0.07 Close to the wall 0.51 0.3 0.23 0.16

 Source location in the room B/H 1 2 3 4 Source along the room axis 0.8 0.7 0.65 0.6 Between the axis and the wall 0.8 0.72 0.67 0.63 Close to the wall 0.85 0.75 0.7 0.68

TABLE 7.5 Values of K and b Coefficients8

 0s„rf. °c B K 20 1.01 1.67 80 1.36 1.6 180 2.3 1.53 280 3.3 1.47 380 4.87 1.41 480 6.92 1.36 580 9.43 1.33 980 25.5 1.19

Where C0e0 = surface emittance, W/m2 °C, and K and b are coefficients de­pending on the surface temperature (see Table 7.5).

For horizontal surfaces facing upward, coefficient K should be increased by 30%, and for horizontal surfaces facing downward, it should be decreased by 30%, compared with the data from Table 7.5.8

The total unit heat gain from the process equipment, W^, can be evalu­ated using the graph in Fig. 7.1.

Heat Gain from Lighting

This can be calculated from

 .17)

Wllght — K„K„., w,

Where Ku = lighting use factor (applied to lighting when use is known to be intermittent), Ksa = special allowance factor, and W0 = total light wattage. The special allowance factor is for fluorescent fixtures and fixtures that are ei­ther ventilated or installed so that only part of their heat contributes to a space heat load.1

Heat Gain from Equipment Operated by Electric Motors

Heat gain related to electric motors is calculated as1

 1 (0.2) 2 (0.5) 3 (0.8)

 O

 1 10 WA, kW/nr

 100

 0,1

 FIGURE 7.1 Relationship between the heat source surface temperature, 6\$urf, heat flux, W/-ASI and the heat source emittance e /KA : I—KA — 0.2; 2—KA — 0.5; 3—KA = 0.8.

Where P = motor power rating, W; ЈM = motor efficiency, expressed as a dec ­imal fraction < 1.0; FUM = motor use factor, 1.0 or a decimal fraction < 1.0; f j M = motor load factor, 1.0 or a decimal fraction < 1.0.

Heat Loss/Gain for Heating or Cooling Materials and Parts Brought into or Taken out of the Space

This heat loss/gain is calculated as

Wmat = t-(01-0o)GB, (7.19)

Where c = specific heat, W/(m3 °C); f, = material initial temperature, °C; G = ma­terial mass, kg; B = share of heat load lost/gained during the time period AZ from the time the material was brought in (see Fig. 7.2), B = f(Fo); Fo = AZ/cGR, where

R = — fri + , <7-2°)

PXA2 a0A

X = heat conductivity coefficient, W/(m °C) (increased by 25% for loose ma­terials), and a0 = total heat flux coefficient, W/(m2 °C).

Heat Load from Molten Metal Cooling

This can be calculated as

^molten mat = ~ 6S) + cs(^s “ ©o)3(7.21)

Where c; = specific heat of the material in the liquid phase, W/(m3 °C); cs = specific heat of the material in the solid phase, W/(m3 °C); and 0S = tem­perature of solidification, °C.