The arrangement for closed recirculation is shown in Fig. 4.40. It overcomes many of the problems encountered with the open system. Typical applications include engine cooling and heat rejection from refrigeration plant.
1. Compared with the open system, the average cooling water temperature drop is small, only in the 6-8 °C range.
2. Provided no water losses occur due to pipeline leaks, the cost of water treatment is at a minimum.
1. Corrosion and fouling will occur, though normally considerably less than that experienced in the open system.
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