INTRODUCTION—WHY ATTENTION TO INDUSTRIAL AIR TECHNOLOGY?
A young scientist said, “I have never seen a complex scientific area such as industrial ventilation, where so little scientific research and brain power has been applied.” This is one of the major reasons activities in the industrial ventilation field at the global level were started. The young scientist was right. The challenges faced by designers and practitioners in the industrial ventilation field, compared to comfort ventilation, are much more complex. In industrial ventilation, it is essential to have an in-depth knowledge of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD), three-dimensional heat flow, complex fluid flows, steady state and transient conditions, operator issues, contaminants inside and outside the facility, etc.
In all ventilation, the condition of the indoor environment, called indoor air quality (IAQ), and the exposures for the occupants are important. In industrial facilities, the contaminant emission rates may be 10-100 times higher than in nonindustrial facilities, but for many contaminants the IAQ levels may
Industrial Ventilation Design Guidebook
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CHAPTER I INDUSTRIAL AIR TECHNOLOGY—DESCRIPTION
Be the same. The first priority is to consider the process, but other important issues, such as occupants, energy, environment, and corporate image, must also be considered.
Energy is a key issue and is closely associated with the environment. Global environmental issues must be addressed, where the energy chain from resources to end users is of vital importance.
It is recognized that some countries are leaders in the area of scientific research and experimental development. It is also known that Scandinavian countries have been in the forefront of implementing leading-edge technology for good environmental practice and energy-efficient plants in the 1980s and 1990s. The challenge is the implementation of the best industrial ventilation technology and practice to all workplaces on a global basis.
The objectives of new innovations, procedures, systems, and equipment to fulfill the end user’s needs must be included as a part of the ongoing development program. Significant advances in technology presented in this book are target levels, systematic design methodology, indoor air quality strategies, and control of flow in facilities. The objective is to make them work in practice and to continue the development process.
It will be critical to update publications such as the Design Guide Rook in the industrial ventilation field on a regular basis. Never stop the developing process; study, develop, and update everything, taking into account Sife-cycle ecological issues.
When we compare industrial air technology (IAT) with comfort ventilation, we can see that technologically our task is very challenging. To fulfill all the needs of the end user is often impossible. If the IAQ is fulfilled, the amount of air may be so large that draftiness is too high. We must also have the courage to say what is possible and what is not. We also have to create tools to validate this.
The benefits of advanced industrial air technology are:
• Improved health of workers and reduced absenteeism as a result of better IAQ
• Improved work satisfaction, higher productivity, and reduced production failures as a result of improved indoor air quality
• Reduction in maintenance costs for the building fabrics, machinery, and products
• Reduction in energy consumption as a result of improved usage patterns and reduced air flow rates
• Increased awareness, and therefore improved selection, of new energy — efficient systems in ventilation design, also leading to reduced energy consumption
• Cleaner surroundings, and thus an improved image of the company, resulting from improved systems and equipment
• Reduction in environmental pollution due to lower energy usage and lower emissions to the surroundings
• Improved life cycle economy resulting from the use of high-level industrial air technology systems and equipment
Field studies have revealed a significant potential for energy saving by modern industrial air technology. For example, one study revealed great varia-
AIR TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS
Tion in energy consumption (a ratio of 5:1) in technically similar welding halls; this study showed the best indoor air quality was achieved in the hall with the lowest energy consumption. With commercially available high-level design concepts it is possible to decrease the contaminant load by about 90% and the heat load by about 60% compared with medium-level applications.
The above results show the need to increase the level of knowledge from “rules of thumb” to a more rigorous scientific procedure based on validated data and design methods.
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