Conversion Tables

To Convert

Into

Multiply By

Acres

Square feet

43,560.0

Atmospheres

Centimeters of mercury

76.0

Atmospheres

Feet of water (at 4°C)

33.90

Atmospheres

Inches of mercury (at 0°C)

29.92

Atmospheres (atm)

Kilograms/ square centimeter

1.0333

Atmospheres

Pounds/square inch

14.70

Barrels (U. S., liquid)

Gallons

31.5

Barrels (oil) (bbl)

Gallons (oil)

42.0

Btu

Foot-pounds

778.3

Btu

Gram-calories

252.0

Btu

Horsepower-hour

3.931 X 10-4

Btu

Kilowatt-hours

2.928 X 10-4

Btu per hour (Btu/h)

Horsepower

3.931 X 10-4

Btu/h

Watts

0.2931

Calories, gram (mean)

Btu (mean)

3.9685 X 10-3

Degrees centigrade

Degrees

(°C + 40)

Or Celsius (°C)

Fahrenheit

9/5 — 40

Centimeters (cm)

Feet

3.281 X 10-2

Centimeters

Inches

0.3937

Centimeters

Mils

393.7

Centimeters of

Atmospheres

0.01316

Mercury (cm Hg)

Centimeters of mercury

Feet of water

0.4461

Centimeters of mercury

Pounds/square inch

0.1934

Circumference

Radians

6.283

Cubic centimeters (cm3)

Cubic feet

3.531 X 10-5

Cubic centimeters

Cubic inches

0.06102

Cubic centimeters

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

2.642 X 10-4

Cubic feet (ft3)

Cubic centimeters

28,320.0

Cubic feet

Cubic inches

1,728.0

To Convert

Into

Multiply By

Cubic feet

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

7.481

Cubic feet

Liters

28.32

Cubic feet

Quarts (U. S. liquid)

29.92

Cubic feet

Gallons/second

0.1247

Per minute

Cubic feet

Pounds of water/

62.43

Per minute

Minute

Cubic inches (in3)

Cubic centimeters

16.39

Cubic inches

Gallons

4.329 X 10-3

Cubic inches

Quarts (U. S. liquid)

0.01732

Cubic meters

Cubic feet

35.31

Cubic meters

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

264.2

Cubic yards (yd3)

Cubic feet

27.0

Cubic yards

Cubic meters

0.7646

Cubic yards

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

202.0

Degrees (angle)

Radians

0.01745

Drams (apothecaries’

Ounces

0.13714

Or troy)

(avoirdupois)

Drams (apothecaries’

Ounces

0.125

Or troy)

(troy)

Drams (U. S., fluid

Cubic

3.6967

Or apothecary)

Centimeter

Drams

Grams

1.772

Drams

Grains

27.3437

Drams

Ounces

0.0625

Degrees Fahrenheit

Degrees

(°F + 40)

(°F)

Centigrade

5/9 — 40

Feet (ft)

Centimeters

30.48

Feet

Kilometers

3.048 X 10-4

Feet

Meters

0.3048

Feet

Miles (nautical)

1.645 X 10-4

Feet

Miles (statute)

1.894 X 10-4

Feet of water

Atmospheres

0.02950

(ft H2O)

Feet of water

Inches of mercury

0.8826

Feet of water

Kilograms/ square centimeter

0.03045

Feet of water

Kilograms/ square meter

304.8

Feet of water

Pounds/square foot

62.43

Feet of water

Pounds/square inch

0.4335

Foot-pounds (ft-lb)

Btu

1.286 X 10-3

Foot-pounds

Gram-calories

0.3238

Foot-pounds

Horsepower-hours

5.050 X 10-7

Foot-pounds

Kilowatt-hours

3.766 X 10-7

Foot-pounds/minute

Btu/

1.286 X 10-3

(ft-lb/min)

Minute

Foot-pounds/minute

Horsepower

3.030 X 10-5

Foot-pounds/second

Btu per hour

4.6263

(ft-lb/sec)

Furlongs

Miles (U. S.)

0.125

Furlongs

Feet

660.0

Gallons (gal)

Cubic centimeter

3,785.0

Gallons

Cubic feet

0.1337

Gallons

Cubic inches

231.0

Gallons

Cubic meters

3.785 X 10-3

Gallons

Cubic yards

4.951 X 10-3

Gallons

Liters

3.785

Gallons (British

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

1.20095

Imperial liquid)

Gallons (U. S.)

Gallons (Imperial)

0.83267

Gallons of water

Pounds of water

8.3453

Gallons per minute

Cubic feet/

2.228 X 10-3

(gal/min, gpm)

Second

Gallons per minute

Liters/second

0.06308

Gallons per minute

Cubic feet/hour

8.0208

Grains (troy) (gr)

Grains (avdp.)

1.0

Grains (troy)

Grams

0.06480

Grains (troy)

Ounces (avdp.)

2.286 X 10-3

Grains (troy)

Pennyweight (troy)

0.04167

Grains per

Parts/million

17.118

U. S. gallon

Grains per

Pounds/

U. S. gallon

Million gallons

142.86

Grains oer

Parts/million

14.286

Imperial gallon

To Convert

Into

Multiply By

Grams (g)

Grains

15.43

Grams

Ounces (avdp.)

0.03527

Grams

Ounces (troy)

.03215

Grams

Poundals

0.07093

Grams

Pounds

2.205 X 10-3

Grams per liter

(g/L)

Parts/million

1,000.0

Gram-calories

(g-cal)

Btu

3.9683 X 10-3

Gram-calories

Foot-pounds

3.0880

Gram-calories

Kilowatt-hour

1.1630 X 10-6

Gram-calories

Watt-hour

1.1630 X 10-3

Horsepower (hp)

Btu/minute

42.40

Horsepower

Foot-pounds/minute

33,000.0

Horsepower

Foot-pounds/second

550.0

Horsepower (metric)

Horsepower

(542.5 ft-lb/sec)

(550 ft-lb/sec)

0.9863

Horsepower

Horsepower (metric)

(550 ft-lb/sec)

(542.5 ft-lb/sec)

1.014

Horsepower

Kilowatts

0.7457

Horsepower

Watts

745.7

Horsepower

(boiler)

Btu/hour

33.520

Horsepower

(boiler)

Kilowatts

9.803

Horsepower-hour

(hp-hr)

Btu

2,547

Horsepower-hour

Foot-pounds

1.98 X 106

Horsepower-hour

Kilowatt-hours

0.7457

Inches (in)

Centimeters

2.540

Inches

Meters

25.40

Inches

Millimeters

2.540 X 10-2

Inches

Yards

22.778 X 10-2

Inches of mercury (in Hg)

Atmospheres

0.03342

Inches of mercury

Feet of water

1.133

Inches of mercury

Kilograms/ square centimeters

0.03453

Inches of mercury

Kilograms/ square meter

345.3

Inches of mercury

Pounds/square foot

70.73

Inches of mercury

Pounds/square inch

0.4912

Inches of water

Atmospheres

2.458 X 10-3

(at 4°C) (in H2O,

In wg, in W. C.)

Inches of water

Inches of

0.07355

(at 4°C)

Mercury

Inches of water

Kilograms/

2.538 X 10-3

(at 4°C)

Square centimeter

Inches of water

Ounces/

0.5781

(at 4°C)

Square inch

Inches of water

Pounds/

5.204

(at 4°C)

Square foot

Inches of water

Pounds/

0.03613

(at 4°C)

Square inch

Joules (J)

Btu

9.480 X 10-4

Kilograms (kg)

Grams

1,000.0

Kilograms

Pounds

2.205

Kilograms per

Pounds/

0.06243

Cubic meter (kg/m3)

Cubic foot

Kilograms per

Pounds/

3.613 X 10-5

Cubic meter

Cubic inch

Kilograms per square

Atmospheres

0.9678

Centimeter (kg/cm2)

Kilograms per

Feet of water

32.84

Square centimeter

Kilograms per

Inches of mercury

28.96

Square centimeter

Kilograms per

Pounds/

2,048.0

Square centimeter

Square foot

Kilograms per

Pounds/

14.22

Square centimeter

Square inch

Kilograms per

Atmospheres

9.678 X 10-5

Square meter (kg/m2)

Kilograms per

Feet of water

3.281 X 10-3

Square meter

Kilograms per

Inches of

2.896 X 10-3

Square meter

Mercury

To Convert

Into

Multiply By

Kilograms per

Pounds/

0.2048

Square meter

Square foot

Kilograms per

Pounds/

1.422 X 10-

Square meter

Square inch

Kilograms per

Kilograms/

106

Square millimeter

Square meter

Kilogram-calories

Btu

3.968

Kilogram-calories

Foot-pounds

3,088.0

Kilogram-calories

Horsepower-hour

1.560 X 10-

Kilogram-calories

Kilowatt-hour

1.163 X 10-

Kilogram meters

Btu

9.294 X 10-

Kilometers

Centimeters

105

Kilometers

Feet

3,281.0

Kilometers

Miles

0.6214

Kilowatts

Btu/minute

56.87

Kilowatts

Foot-pounds/minute

4.426 X 104

Kilowatts

Foot-pounds/second

737.6

Kilowatts

Horsepower

1,341.0

Kilowatts

Watts

1,000.0

Kilowatt-hour

Btu

3,413.0

Kilowatt-hour

Foot-pounds

2.655 X 106

Kilowatt-hour

Horsepower-hour

1,341

Knots

Statute miles/hour

1.151

Liters (L)

Cubic centimeters

1,000.0

Liters

Cubic feet

0.03531

Liters

Cubic inches

61.02

Liters

Gallons (U. S. liquid)

0.2642

Meters (m)

Centimeters

100.0

Meters

Feet

3.281

Meters

Inches

39.37

Meters

Millimeters

1,000.0

Meters

Yards

1.094

Microns (^, ^m)

Inches

39.37 X 10-

Microns

Meters

1 X 10-6

Miles (statute) (mi)

Feet

5,280.0

Miles (statute)

Kilometers

1.609

Miles per hour

Centimeters/second

44.70

(mi/hr, mph)

Miles per hour

Feet/minute

88.0

Mils

Inches

0.001

Mils

Yards

2.778 X 10-5

Nepers

Decibels

8.686

Ohms (w)

Megohms

10-6

Ohms

Microhms

106

Ounces (avoirdupois) (oz)

Drams

16.0

Ounces (avoirdupois)

Grains

437.5

Ounces (avoirdupois)

Grams

28.35

Ounces (avoirdupois)

Pounds

0.0625

Ounces (avoirdupois)

Ounces (troy)

0.9115

Ounces (troy)

Grains

480.0

Ounces (troy)

Grams

31.10

Ounces (troy)

Ounces (avdp.)

1.09714

Ounces (troy)

Pounds (troy)

0.08333

Parts per million

Grains/

0.0584

(ppm)

U. S. gallon

Parts per million

Grains/

Imperial gallon

0.07016

Parts per million

Pounds/ million gallons

8.33

Pounds

Ounces (troy)

14.58

(avoirdupois) (lb)

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Drams

256.0

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Grains

7,000.0

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Grams

28.35

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Kilograms

0.02835

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Ounces

16.0

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Tons (short)

0.0005

Pounds (troy)

Ounces (avdp.)

13.1657

Pounds of water

Cubic feet

0.01602

Pounds of water

Cubic inches

27.68

Pounds of water

Gallons

0.1198

Pounds of water

Cubic feet/

2.670 X 10-4

Per minute

Second

Pounds per cubic

Kilogram/

0.01602

Foot (lb/ft3)

Cubic meter

Pounds per

Grams/

16.02

Cubic foot

Cubic centimeter

To Convert

Into

Multiply By

Pounds per

Pounds/

5.787 X 10~4

Cubic foot

Cubic inch

Pounds per

Pounds/

1.728.0

Cubic inch

Cubic foot

Pounds per

Atmospheres

4.725 X 10-4

Square foot (lb/ft2)

Pounds per

Feet

0.01602

Square foot

Of water

Pounds per

Inches of

0.01414

Square foot

Mercury

Pounds per square

Atmospheres

0.06804

Inch (lb/in2, psi)

Pounds per

Feet of

2.307

Square inch

Water

Pounds per

Inches of

2.036

Square inch

Mercury

Pounds per

Kilograms/

703.1

Square inch

Square meter

Pounds per

Pounds/

144.0

Square inch

Square foot

Radians

Degrees

57.30

Revolutions per

Degrees/

6.0

Minute (rpm)

Second

Revolutions per

Radians/

0.1047

Minute

Second

Revolutions

Revolutions/

0.01667

Per minute

Second

Square centimeters

Square feet

1.076 X 10-3

(cm2)

Square centimeters

Square inches

0.1550

Square centimeters

Square meters

0.0001

Square centimeters

Square millimeters

100.0

Square feet (ft2)

Acres

2.296 X 10-5

Square feet

Square centimeters

929.03

Square feet

Square inches

144.0

Square feet

Square miles

3.587 X 10-8

Square inches (in2)

Square centimeters

6.452

Square inches

Square feet

6.944 X 10-3

Square inches

Square yards

7.716 X 10-4

Square meters

Square feet

10.76

Square meters

Square inches

1,550.0

Square meters

Square millimeters

106

Square meters

Square yards

1.196

Square millimeters

Square inches

1.550 X 10-3

(mm2)

Square yards (yd2)

Square feet

9.0

Square yards

Square inches

1,296.0

Square yards

Square meters

0.8361

Temperature (°C)

Absolute temperature

1.0

+ 273.15

(kelvins or °C)

Temperature (°C)

Temperature (°F)

1.8

+ 17.78

Temperature (°F)

Absolute temperature

1.0

+ 459.67

(°Rankine)

Temperature (°F)

Temperature (°C)

5/9

— 32

Tons (long)

Kilograms

1,016.0

Tons (long)

Pounds

2,240.0

Tons (long)

Tons (short)

1.120

Tons (metric)

Kilograms

1,000.0

Tons (metric)

Pounds

2,205.0

Tons (short)

Kilograms

907.2

Tons (short)

Pounds

2,000.0

Tons (short)

Tons (long)

0.89287

Tons of water

Pounds of

83.333

Per 24 hours

Water/hour

Tons of water

Gallons/minute

0.16643

Per 24 hours

Tons of water

Cubic feet/hour

1.3349

Per 24 hours

Watts (W)

Btu/h

3.4129

Watts

Btu/minute

0.05688

Watts

Horsepower

1.341 X 10-3

Watts

Horsepower (metric)

1.360 X 10-3

Watts

Kilowatts

0.001

Watts (abs.)

Btu (mean)/minute

0.056884

Watt-hours

Btu

3.413

Watt-hours

Horsepower-hours

1.341 X 10-3

Yards (yd)

Centimeters

91.44

Yards

Kilometers

9.144 X 10-4

Yards

Meters

0.9144

[1]/8 in 50 —

V2 in 50 —

34 0.80

Y4 in 34 —

3/8 in 34 —

V2 in 34 —

3/4 in —————-

Figure 4-4 Residential heat loss tabulation form. (Courtesy Amaru Refrigeration, Inc.)

[3] Shortened blower motor life caused by high air temperatures from the wood furnace.

[4] Construction design

[5] Install the V2-in tee (with long and short nipples) on the float chamber by inserting the short nipple in the float chamber tapping in the end opposite the switch. Screw the tee tight with the long nipple pointing in the correct direction, depend­ing on the location of the boiler (Figure 15-26).

[6] Place split brick A on the ashpit floor to form the floor of the combustion chamber.

[7] Loads based on Schedule 40 pipe for pressures up to and including 250 psig and on Schedule 80 pipe for pressures above 250 psig. aFor outdoor temperature of 0°F, multiply load value in table for each main size by correction factor corresponding to steam pressure. Courtesy Sarco Company; Inc.

[8]Chart loads represent losses due to radiation and convection for saturated steam.

AFor outdoor temperature of 0°F, multiply load value in table for each main size by correction factor corresponding to steam pressure. Courtesy Sarco Company; Inc.

[9]150-lb. bronze flanges have plain faces with two concentric gasket-retaining grooves between the port and the bolt holes.

[10]600-lb. steel flanges have a 1U" raised face, which is NOT included in the flange dimensions.

[11]400-lb. steel flanges have a 1U" raised face, which is NOT included in the flange dimensions.

[12]150-lb. steel flanges have a Vis" raised face, which is included in the flange thickness dimensions.

[13]These clearances apply except if the listing of an appliance specifies different clearances, in which case the listed clearance takes precedence. a! f listed Type L venting-system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting-system listing.

If listed Type B or Type L venting-system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting-system listing.

The clearances from connectors to combustible materials may be reduced if the combustible material is protected in accordance with Table 1C.

[14]Rooms that are large in comparison to the size of the appliance are those having a volume equal to at least 12 times the total volume of a furnace and at least 16 times the total volume of a boiler. If the actual ceiling height of a room is greater than 8 ft, the

Volume of a room shall be figured on the basis of a ceiling height of 8 ft.

AThe minimum dimension should be that necessary for servicing the appliance including access for cleaning and normal care, tube removal, etc.

BFor a listed oil, combination gas-oil, gas, or electric furnace, this dimension may be 2 in if the furnace limit control cannot be set

Higher than 250°F or 1 in if the limit control cannot be set higher than 200°F.

Courtesy National Oil Fuel Institute

[15]If the appliance is encased in brick, the 18 in clearance above and at sides and rear may be reduced to not less than 12 in Courtesy National Oil Fuel Institute

Posted in Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 1 Heating Systems, Furnaces, and Boilers


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