Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

 

Figure 8.15 Labyrinth seal

 

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Figure 8.16 Labyrinth seal with annular springs

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Figure 8.17 Labyrinth seal with floating bushing

Better tightness can be achieved with a floating bushing. The carbon rings are made in two or three parts which are kept closely to the shaft with annular springs (Figure 8.16). Afloating bushing as shown in Figure 8.17 can also be used.

Mechanical seals

If the fan operates at a high pressure, ordinary packing may be unsatisfactory. Some form of mechanical seal must then be employed. Atypical example is shown in Figure 8.18.

In this design a collar is attached to the shaft by a setscrew. The position of the collar causes the compression springs to exert a

Calculation of the duty requirement

Whilst not exactly a special feature it is convenient at this point to say something about the calculation of the required fan per­formance.

When fans handle air or some other gas, which has a density differing from the standard 1.2 kg/m3 then performance will vary in accordance with the Fan Laws (see Chapter 4). Thus at a constant volumetric flowrate, the pressure developed, the weight flowrate and the power absorbed will all vary directly with the density of the air or gas being handled. Fan efficiency re­mains unchanged.

Afan being essentially a “constant-volume” machine, it is nec­essary to know how the duty requirement has been calculated.

A) Fan flowrate must always be converted to the actual con­ditions at the fan inlet. Does the customer require the same volume or weight flow?

B) It is important to know under what conditions the fan pres­sure has been calculated. How will this vary with tempera­ture?

C) Will the fan be required to start on cold air? Is there a need for dampers to assist?

D) Find out the maximum temperature reached during opera­tion — there may be a heat build-up.

An understanding of these rules is important for correct fan se­lection, determining the correct operating speed where this is variable and also to determining the power consumption over the duty cycle.

Mechanical fitness at high temperature

The strength of metals and plastics varies according to their temperature. When handling air or gas at conditions other than ambient the materials of construction of the fan will therefore also vary from the values normally given in textbooks.

It is important to remember that all elements of the fan must be satisfactory:

A) Impeller

B) Shaft

C) Bearings

D) Casing

Elements within the air or gas stream are likely to take up the same temperature, but elements outside may take up a temper­ature somewhere between that of the gas stream and the ambi­ent air around the fan.

For detailed methods of calculation to determine material suit­ability refer to Chapter 7.

Maintaining the effectiveness of the fan bear­ings

It is important that the “temper" of the balls or rollers is main­tained. Normal greases are likely to break down at tempera­tures above about 90°C. For these two reasons it is essential to reduce the amount of heat which is transmitted from the gas stream, along the shaft to the first bearing. There are a number of ways in which this objective may be achieved.

A) The first and most important method is to add an auxiliary cooling disc to the shaft between the casing and inner

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Figure 8.19 Belt driven centrifugal fan with air cooled bearings

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Figure 8.20 Fabricated plug type fan with internal shrouded copper cooling impeller

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Fans operating at non-ambient temper­atures

Figure 8.21 Plug fan for the glass industry

Bearing. With a simple aluminium bolt-on construction having six open radial blades this extends the operating gas temperature from 75 °C to a maximum of 350 °C as heat is dissipated from the shaft and the temperature at the bearing reduced to less than 90 °C, see Figure 8.19. A more sophisticated shrouded copper impeller has been used with d) below for gas temperatures up to 650 °C. This is just visible through the mesh in Figure 8.20.

B) At higher temperatures water-cooled sleeve bearings may be used. The water ensures that the oil lubricant does not become too thin and also that the white metal babbit does not melt. (See Chapter 10.)

C) Spacer couplings which make a heat “break” in the shaft may also be used above 400 °C. Shaft slots have also been used.

D) Insulated “plugs” on the drive side are typically used above 500 °C to minimise problems from radiated heat, (see Figure 8.21).

Increased bearing “fits”

Bearings are manufactured with various grades of clearance between the rotating elements and the raceways, the normal clearance being designated CN. Table 8.2 gives typical details of the grades available, it being noted that C3, C4 and C5 have clearances greater than normal. Whilst C3 bearings are com­monly used where the product of bearing size in mm and rota­tional speed in rev/min exceeds 175 000 to dissipate frictional heat, C4 or C5 may be necessary with fans handling gases at up to 650 °C.

Casing features

These may require the ability to withstand loads externally ap­plied at high temperatures due to the expansion of the cus­tomer’s ducting. A preferable alternative is to provide high tem­perature flexible connections on the fan inlet and outlet and to ensure that clients separately support their ducting.

The casing itself will expand, growing up from its feet. As the pedestal will be cooler, this may destroy the clearances be­tween inlet cone and impeller eye or shaft and shaft entry point. The growth is a function of temperature and size. Clearances of inlet cones and at shaft entry may then need to be increased above about 350°C. At temperatures above about 450°C it is common to support the fan casing near its centreline so that growth of all parts is radially outwards and clearances are not affected.

Bore diameter d

Radial internal clearance

C2

Normal

C3

C4

C5

Over

Incl

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Mm

Urn

6

0

7

2

13

8

23

.

.

.

6

10

0

7

2

13

8

23

14

29

20

37

10

18

0

9

3

18

11

25

18

33

25

45

18

24

0

10

5

20

13

28

20

36

28

48

24

30

1

11

5

20

13

28

23

41

30

53

30

40

1

11

6

20

15

33

28

46

40

64

40

50

1

11

6

23

18

36

30

51

45

73

50

65

1

15

8

28

23

43

38

61

55

90

65

80

1

15

10

30

25

51

46

71

65

105

80

100

1

18

12

36

30

58

53

84

75

120

100

120

2

20

15

41

36

66

61

97

90

140

120

140

2

23

18

48

41

81

71

114

105

160

140

160

2

23

18

53

46

91

81

130

120

180

160

180

2

25

20

61

53

102

91

147

135

200

180

200

2

30

25

71

63

117

107

163

150

230

200

225

4

32

28

82

73

132

120

187

175

255

225

250

4

36

31

92

87

152

140

217

205

290

250

280

4

39

36

97

97

162

152

237

255

320

280

315

8

45

42

110

110

180

175

260

260

360

315

355

8

50

50

120

120

200

200

290

290

405

355

400

8

60

60

140

140

230

230

330

330

460

400

450

10

70

70

160

160

260

260

370

370

520

450

500

10

80

80

180

180

290

290

410

410

570

500

560

20

90

90

200

200

320

320

460

460

630

560

630

20

100

100

220

220

350

350

510

510

700

630

710

30

120

120

250

250

390

390

560

560

780

710

800

30

130

130

280

280

440

440

620

620

860

800

900

30

150

150

310

310

490

490

690

690

960

900

1 000

40

160

160

340

340

540

540

760

760

1 040

1 000

1 120

40

170

170

370

370

590

590

840

840

1 120

1 120

1 250

40

180

180

400

400

640

640

910

910

1 220

1 250

1 400

60

210

210

440

440

700

700

1 000

1 000

1 340

1 400

1 600

60

230

230

480

480

770

770

1 100

1 100

1 470

Table 8.2 Typical radial internal clearance of deep groove ball bearings

подпись: bore diameter d radial internal clearance
 c2 normal c3 c4 c5
over incl min max min max min max min max min max
mm urn
 6 0 7 2 13 8 23 - . . .
6 10 0 7 2 13 8 23 14 29 20 37
10 18 0 9 3 18 11 25 18 33 25 45
18 24 0 10 5 20 13 28 20 36 28 48
24 30 1 11 5 20 13 28 23 41 30 53
30 40 1 11 6 20 15 33 28 46 40 64
40 50 1 11 6 23 18 36 30 51 45 73
50 65 1 15 8 28 23 43 38 61 55 90
65 80 1 15 10 30 25 51 46 71 65 105
80 100 1 18 12 36 30 58 53 84 75 120
100 120 2 20 15 41 36 66 61 97 90 140
120 140 2 23 18 48 41 81 71 114 105 160
140 160 2 23 18 53 46 91 81 130 120 180
160 180 2 25 20 61 53 102 91 147 135 200
180 200 2 30 25 71 63 117 107 163 150 230
200 225 4 32 28 82 73 132 120 187 175 255
225 250 4 36 31 92 87 152 140 217 205 290
250 280 4 39 36 97 97 162 152 237 255 320
280 315 8 45 42 110 110 180 175 260 260 360
315 355 8 50 50 120 120 200 200 290 290 405
355 400 8 60 60 140 140 230 230 330 330 460
400 450 10 70 70 160 160 260 260 370 370 520
450 500 10 80 80 180 180 290 290 410 410 570
500 560 20 90 90 200 200 320 320 460 460 630
560 630 20 100 100 220 220 350 350 510 510 700
630 710 30 120 120 250 250 390 390 560 560 780
710 800 30 130 130 280 280 440 440 620 620 860
800 900 30 150 150 310 310 490 490 690 690 960
900 1 000 40 160 160 340 340 540 540 760 760 1 040
1 000 1 120 40 170 170 370 370 590 590 840 840 1 120
1 120 1 250 40 180 180 400 400 640 640 910 910 1 220
1 250 1 400 60 210 210 440 440 700 700 1 000 1 000 1 340
1 400 1 600 60 230 230 480 480 770 770 1 100 1 100 1 470
table 8.2 typical radial internal clearance of deep groove ball bearings
Where oxygen is present in the gases, “scaling” of a mild steel case will take place above 400°C at increasing rates to 500 °C where it becomes catastrophic. COR-TEN® steel and other
proprietary grades, which have a copper content, scale at a slower rate. Information is available from the manufacturer on the rate for these and many other steels.

As an alternative, the casing may be “aluminised”, which effec­tively eliminates the problem. Above about 570 °C stainless steel casings are usually necessary from scaling, strength and stability considerations.

It should be noted that scaling will not occur if the gases are in­ert e. g. nitrogen. Flue gases may be inert under conditions of perfect combustion, i. e. do not contain oxygen in its free form.

Lagging cleats

European legislation now covers the maximum safe tempera­ture for surfaces which may come into contact with the hands or other parts of the human body. It may also be desirable for effi­ciency reasons to limit the amount of heat which may be dissi­pated from the casing. In these cases, lagging cleats should be added to assist in the anchoring of insulating materials.

Mechanical fitness at low temperature

There are no real problems with gas temperatures down to about -30 °C but allowance must be made for the power in­crease due to the higher air density. Below -40°C mild steel be­comes increasingly brittle. It may be necessary to use an alu­minium impeller or steel with high nickel content. Shafting should also be of nickel steel whilst bearing plummer blocks must be cast steel (not cast iron). Grease lubricants should be checked for suitability — they must not solidify or separate.

Posted in Fans Ventilation A Practical Guide


Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *