Piping must be properly supported at frequent intervals to limit stress and deflec­tion. Supports must allow for expansion and contraction which will occur in use, special care must be taken with long straight runs which can expand significantly when hot. This has been known to cause distortion, high stresses and equipment failure. Pipework which might form a convenient foothold for persons should be protected from damage by providing other footholds and guarding insulation.

Stop valves, especially those which might need to be operated in a hurry (and this means most, if not all, of them), should have easy access. Where they are out of reach, reliance should not be placed on moveable ladders, which may not be there when needed, but permanent access provided. Chain-operated wheels can be fitted to the larger valves, to permit remote operation.

Emergency stop valves must not be placed in tunnels or ducts, since person­nel may be subject to additional danger trying to operate them.

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