Refrigeration is the action of cooling, and in practice this requires removal of heat and discarding it at a higher temperature. Refrigeration is therefore the sci­ence of moving heat from low temperature to high temperature. In addition to chilling and freezing applications, refrigeration technology is applied in air con­ditioning and heat pumps, which therefore fall within the scope of this book. The fundamental principles are those of physics and thermodynamics, and these prin­ciples, which are relevant to all applications, are outlined in this opening chapter.

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