Refrigeration is the action of cooling, and in practice this requires removal of heat and discarding it at a higher temperature. Refrigeration is therefore the science of moving heat from low temperature to high temperature. In addition to chilling and freezing applications, refrigeration technology is applied in air conditioning and heat pumps, which therefore fall within the scope of this book. The fundamental principles are those of physics and thermodynamics, and these principles, which are relevant to all applications, are outlined in this opening chapter.
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