FUME CONTROL TECHNOLOGY Basic Principles
Fumes are defined as solid airborne particulates that have been produced by a change of state. Many industrial operations produce fumes which affect both the indoor environment and the outdoor environment. For many operations, fumes are generated by a high-temperature process. The gas stream containing the fume is usually of high temperature and contains combustibles. The combustibles may form an explosive mixture, thus necessitating specialized design inputs for most fume control ventilation systems. The major elements of a fume control system are pictured in Fig. 13.28.
Fume emission source
FIGURE 13.28 Elements of a fume control system.
For a fume control problem, the questions which should be asked, in order of priority, are as follows:
1. Can the fume generation process be eliminated?
2. Can the fume be captured or totally contained at the source?
3. Can the fume be captured at low level?
4. Can the fume be captured remotely?
To establish whether the fume generation process can be eliminated, the following types of questions must be asked:
1. Can the process be changed? (This should be pursued in depth at an early stage of the project.)
2. Can more material be handled at one time?
3. Can the material be handled less frequently?
4. Can the material be moved over shorter distances?
5. Can the material be handled with different equipment or systems?
6. Can the material composition be changed?
7. Can the material be handled at a temperature beneficial to fume
If the fume generation process cannot be eliminated, a fume control system must be designed. An overview of design methodology and design procedures for the different types of fume control systems follows.
Detailed designs for fume control systems and selection of specialized gas — cleaning equipment for specific industries are covered in published reference materials.1_]0
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